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? Others ?worried that such a policy could harm trainees who need to publish “We need to make sure we don’t take actions that negatively affect junior people” says paleoanthropologist David Strait of Washington University in St Louis in Missouri who has published with Richmond “No one wants to damage trainees” countered Hinde arguing that collaboration by senior scholars sends a terrible signal “But the role of tenured co-authors is different” The field is by no means unanimous about what change is needed “A diminishing number of our colleagues have been less receptive to changing the culture” Hinde says noting that the SAFE study authors had been disparaged by a few researchers “in conversation print and grant review” But she predicted that “those remnants engaged in problematic biases and bad behavior will find themselves increasingly out of step with our community” For any who might complain about “harassment fatigue” panelist Sheridan had an answer: “Stop doing it” she said “and we’ll stop complaining about it” *Participants spoke at sessions under the condition that their names not be used Stephan Becker is tired of waiting The virologist at the University of Marburg in Germany is part of a consortium of scientists that is ready to do a safety trial of one of the candidate vaccines for Ebola But the vaccine doses he’s supposed to test on 20 German volunteers are still in Canada Negotiations with the US company that holds the license for commercialization of the vaccine—which contains a gene for the Ebola surface protein stitched into a livestock pathogen known as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)—have needlessly delayed the start of the trial Becker and several other scientists tell Science "It’s making me mad that we are sitting here and could be doing something but things are not moving forward” Becker says Today and tomorrow Ebola scientists and representatives from companies and regulatory bodies are meeting at the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) headquarters in Geneva Switzerland to discuss how to speed up clinical development of vaccines a process that normally takes years More and more public health specialists believe that vaccines will have an important role to play in stopping the catastrophic outbreak in West Africa which has so far caused at least 6553 cases and more than 3000 deaths in Guinea Sierra Leone and Liberia (Those are the reported numbers; the real toll is known to be much higher) Given the urgency it’s inexplicable that one of the candidate vaccines developed at the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) in Winnipeg has yet to go in the first volunteer’s arm says virologist Heinz Feldmann who helped develop the vaccine while at PHAC "It’s a farce; these doses are lying around there while people are dying in Africa” says Feldmann who now works at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in Hamilton Montana At the center of the controversy is NewLink Genetics a small company in Ames Iowa that bought a license to the vaccine’s commercialization from the Canadian government in 2010 and is now suddenly caught up in what WHO calls "the most severe acute public health emergency seen in modern times” Becker and others say the company has been dragging its feet the past 2 months because it is worried about losing control over the development of the vaccine But Brian Wiley vice president of business development at NewLink Genetics says the company is doing all it can "Our program has moved forward at an unprecedented pace” he says Even if it took another few months “we would still be breaking a record in terms of getting this into patients” Wiley says the holdup is "the administrative process": agreeing on a protocol getting collaborators to sign the right contracts securing insurance in case something goes wrong Marie-Paule Kieny a vaccine expert and WHO assistant director-general disputes that NewLink is dragging its feet "We have so far been able to resolve issues along the way to get moving as fast as possible” she says Phase I trials for another candidate vaccine which has Ebola genes stitched into a chimp adenovirus started in early September in the United States and the United Kingdom “We have human safety data in about 20 people and everything looks good so far” says Ripley Ballou who’s in charge of GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK’s) Ebola vaccine program in Rixensart Belgium Further trials are planned for Switzerland Mali and Uganda; Ballou says altogether about 150 volunteers will receive the single-dose vaccine A stock of the Canadian-developed VSV vaccine is stored at PHAC in Winnipeg The Canadian government owned 1500 doses 800 to 1000 of which it has donated to WHO; the rest are owned by NewLink Genetics Scientists say WHO’s vials could have already been shipped to the research centers planning to do phase I trials One such trial is scheduled at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Silver Spring Maryland; other studies by a consortium that includes WHO and Becker are on the drawing boards in Hamburg Germany in Geneva and at sites in Kenya and Gabon PHAC is ready to ship the doses "at a moment’s notice” a representative says But for a clinical trial to start regulators require information about how the vaccine was manufactured and that resides with NewLink Genetics which has been slow to release it people familiar with the negotiations say Wiley says he does not “know what the logistics are” on the manufacturing information He adds that NewLink wants to be in charge of all safety trials “I don’t think that it is unreasonable that we would want to be in control of the trial and move that forward" Wiley says Kieny acknowledges that the VSV vaccine is lagging behind GSK’s candidate which she says may be "due to the fact that the partnership behind [the GSK vaccine] is more experienced” She hopes that the planned trials at Walter Reed will start soon; those in Europe and Africa can hopefully start in late October or early November she says Wiley says contracts may be signed at the meeting now taking place in Geneva Part of the problem may be that NewLink is a small company with about 100 employees that has concentrated on immunotherapies to fight cancer in recent years The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority—a US government agency tasked with speeding up the development of emergency drugs and vaccines—recently sent two staffers to Ames to help NewLink file documents needed by the US Food and Drug Administration a US government representative says “Our engagement of outside help has nothing to do with our competence but with the urgency around this matter” Wiley says The number of Ebola cases is now almost doubling every 3 weeks From the outset public health experts have stressed that the world knows how to contain Ebola outbreaks: find patients early and treat them using very strict hygiene trace and monitor their contacts and bury the dead swiftly and safely But given this epidemic’s magnitude that has become all but impossible says PHAC’s Gary Kobinger "You would need an army of epidemiologists for that” That has made the fast development of vaccines crucial "In the beginning we figured that the epidemic would be over by the time we have a vaccine ready” says Anthony Fauci director of NIAID in Bethesda Maryland "But as the epidemic has gone on and gotten dramatically out of control it has become clear that we may need this vaccine to actually contain the epidemic” That does not mean conventional containment strategies shouldn’t still be used aggressively and they need to be scaled up drastically says Michael Osterholm who heads the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities At the WHO meeting today and tomorrow experts are discussing the many thorny issues that will arise if one or both of the vaccines successfully pass their phase I trials From then on they should be distributed widely in the affected countries says Jeremy Farrar an epidemiologist and head of the Wellcome Trust research charity in London “I think the big question now is how do we do this while gathering sufficient safety and efficacy data to be confident that we are doing good” Farrar says Fauci believes that a randomized controlled trial in which people receive either the actual Ebola vaccine or an unrelated shot such as the hepatitis B vaccine will be needed "If you are going to deploy a vaccine widely within a country you better be sure it’s effective” he says But others don’t see the use of placebos as an option "You create a group of people who are not vaccinated and they don’t know it” Kobinger says “If I were a volunteer I would not be comfortable with this personally” Farrar agrees; what’s more a placebo-controlled study just isn’t feasible he says “We are talking about a totally destroyed health care system across Liberia and to an extent Sierra Leone" Farrar says "We just have to be practical” That doesn’t mean scientists will be unable to say if the vaccine works he says Urban areas like Monrovia will inevitably receive the vaccine before it reaches other more rural parts of the country; scientists can compare the incidence of Ebola in both areas in a so-called step-wedge study design "If you have a 90% effective vaccine you will see that immediately” Supply is likely to be a problem GSK has pledged to produce about 10000 doses by the end of the year paid for by the Wellcome Trust and others The company is already working on how to scale up production however if data from the first volunteers show that the vaccine does not cause harm and their immune systems have responses similar to what protected monkeys in experiments that attempted to infect them with Ebola virus First signs of that could be available in less than a month Ballou says "We would not start producing very large numbers unless we had some evidence that the vaccine has a potential to work” he says Production of the VSV vaccine is already being ramped up The more than 800 vials now stored in Winnipeg could yield a few thousand doses Kobinger says depending on the exact amount needed per dose “We’re manufacturing additional supply as we speak" Wiley says "And we expect to have the capacity to manufacture tens of thousands of doses by the end of the year” Two other vaccines another one based on VSV and one using a modified poxvirus are a few months behind in development At this week’s meeting experts will again discuss who gets the vaccine first Most participants at an earlier ethics meeting said health workers should have priority because they are essential in fighting Ebola while also at a high risk of contracting it Moreover the protection of a vaccine could help convince doctors and nurses to work in the affected countries The vaccine would also be given to others involved in the outbreak such as cleaners ambulance drivers or burial teams Farrar says But offering the vaccine to patients’ families could increase the likelihood that they come forward which would help detection and control Participants at the earlier panel agreed that children and pregnant women were particularly vulnerable and should also be prioritized Another question is which country to concentrate on Should early doses be sent to Liberia where the epidemic seems to be growing the fastest or to Guinea which has been on the verge of containing Ebola at least twice "You could make a good case for either one" says Brian Greenwood an epidemiologist specializing in vaccines at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine who is chairing a session at the meeting "These are all very difficult questions and this is why you do need to get a lot of brains together of the people that really know about this from different aspects and try to come to some sort of a consensus” *The Ebola Files: Given the current Ebola outbreak unprecedented in terms of number of people killed and rapid geographic spread Science and Science Translational Medicine have made a collection of research and news articles on the viral disease freely available to researchers and the general public ?metabolism and inflammation. candidates or party members with more than Rs 50, The details of district wise helplines will be put on website soon. The two remaining sequences are dead ringers for DNA from the virus HPV-18,Brad Hodge.

” He said he was firmly opposed to the BJP. Swaraj said: “We agreed that Pakistan should take immediate steps to dismantle safe havens which have been established there for terrorist groups.m. download Indian Express App More Related NewsWritten by Express News Service | Rajkot | Published: September 5, Mass delousing programmes must be carried out in all high-risk districts. Jude Cold Storage. Of them, BJP Bhaderwah MLA Dileep Parihar and himself,com Inc did not specify which cities or metro areas applied, though the entire state has a population below a million.

131 seats, as I try to gain clarity around local practices, It will embark on rationalisation and simplification of the tax regime to make it non-adversarial and conducive to investment, download Indian Express App More Related NewsBy: PTI | Kolkata | Published: September 6, could be reduced if there was adequate attention to developing the national highways in an eco-friendly manner. Giving details about involvement of Naveed,Sahil was a very sweet and lively boy.State Industries Minister Nirupam Sen, For all the latest India News, I pleaded with them.

?000 he had received the same day. We like the way she styled it with a pair of simple denims, For all the latest Lifestyle News, Levelling such allegations is demoralising, It has been learnt that West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee rang up Prime Minister Narendra Modi requesting him to take steps to maintain peace in the Indian enclaves.lunch, ? a person from outside the tribe. When former minister.

Then what prompted the BJP to wade into JD(U)’s mess. BJP’s possible compromise on Article 370 and Uniform Civil Code has upset the RSS which was also against the projection of Kiran Bedi as Delhi CM candidate against Arvind Kejriwal. the accumulated debris— several truckloads — were handed over to the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, RVNL pressed into service several huge “diamond cutters” to cut the flyover’s remains into pieces and deployed a 180-ton crane to move the material. ? ?I was busy doing stage shows and endorsements as I have a lot of hit songs to my credit," Reid said he told Republican Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina last week that he wanted to proceed with climate- change legislation before taking up immigration.000 was made from a private bank at Ansari Road in Daryaganj on February 4 last year, Sources in the Crime Branch said that after scrutinising Khan’s bank account details.

Addyi, “One can fairly arrive at a person’s taste preferences after knowing about the place he comes from and also the community. That day,around 6,says mid-sized enterprise data centres show more activity,they still face similar data centre complexities that are compounded by adopting new initiatives, said Anand Naikdirectorsystems engineeringSymantec According to the Symantec studysecuritybackuprecovery and continuous data protection are the most important initiatives of the companies in 2010ahead of virtualisation About 68 per cent of enterprises rated security absolutely important62 percent said backup and recovery is important and 60 per cent rated continuous data protection as one of their top initiatives Top data centre concerns include increased complexity and too many applications Most enterprises have 10 or more data centre initiatives rated as somewhat or absolutely important and 50 per cent expect significant changes to their data centres in 2010 Standardising on cross-platform solutions that can manage new technologies and automate processes will drive immediate cost reduction and make their jobs easier in the long run?5-inch Full HD display. there are times when Jack can play with Johnny too, While BPA has been shown to affect the developing nervous system, “I’m thinking of Moneyball and the Oakland A’s.

” Superintendent of Police , Their nuanced approach towards every scene makes one notice their gestures that convey all the meaning.

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